Basically, fuel crisis or perhaps not, the Mini wasn't the vehicle the dealers wanted; while its complexity was found by their servicing departments only a little disconcerting, they made little gain on sales of the automobile. The very first couple of Minis off the line at Cowley and Longbridge had earned a reputation for below average reliability, to create a poor situation worse, and also the guarantee costs incurred were proving to be much more than the usual little wearisome.
Because he had unshakeable confidence in Alec Issigonis and his capability to create automobiles that people wanted, not one of this mattered in the time for you to Leonard Lord. Lord was happy that BMC was viewed as being appropriate in the vanguard of the revolution within the auto industry in the time. The Mini also enlarged BMC's variety of cars, managing to create huge sales in a sector below that occupied by the firm's preceding entrylevel versions - the Austin A35/A40 and Morris Minor 1,000 - without influencing the sales of either.
The next step within the rejuvenation of the BMC range was supposed to create a bigger version to plug the gap between the onelitre category cars (A40 and Minor) and the much bigger 1.5litre Farina saloons.
Developing the Mini
Leonard Lord determined he wanted ADO16 be considered a much more highly styled car, because it will be competing in a far higher priced sector of the marketplace, while the Mini had emerged pretty much unchanged from the initial drawings created by Alec Issigonis. He further determined this goal could best be reached by entrusting the auto's styling to Pininfarina, following that business's successful work around the Austin A40. Because what emerged from the Italian styling house was a clear and wellbalanced layout, this proved to be an additional great choice to the part of Lord that when started, proved to be just the best merchandise at the best time. Issigonis did in reality make an effort at styling the ADO16, however he told journalist Ronald Barker, 'I couldn't get
Just such as the Mini before it, ADO16 was developed in remarkably quick time, so it already had the recognisable 1100 profile, once the initial fullsize image appeared in October 1958. The Italian styling home had made no important developments towards the construction of the automobile, but in relation to tidying the styling - giving the roofline a make-over and tidying up the front and sides - the total effect was quite marked.
It had been Griffin who would successfully combine Issigonis' practical engineering, Pininfarina's style and appealing interior ergonomics. Alec Issigonis would keep a watching brief, every Thursday seeing Cowley.
The initial prototype was fitted with the A - Series engine, then fitted longitudinally towards the Morris Minor. Griffin was appalled together with having less torque from your engine along with other attributes of the auto. He appealed straight towards the vice chairman of BMC, George Harriman to obtain the authorisation to obtain things rectified. Griffin got the green light to make use of hydrolastic suspension and also the development of an A - Series engine.
Torsion went up from ft at 2500rpm to 60lb ft at 2500 rpm. Both 12G202 cylinder head and also the distant gear change that also featured around the ADO16, were previewed around the initial 997cc Mini Cooper that was unmasked within the fall of 1961.
It had been noisy and quite unpleasant - a cat's eye bulge seemed much worse within the cottage. Another version had displacers at each wheel, but it wasn't until we put rubber within the suspension linkage that individuals got rid of the harshness.'
Based on Jonathan Wood's excellent novel, Alec Issigonis: The Person Who Made The Mini, the fitment of disk brakes to the ADO16 was opposed by Issigonis.
Issigonis was quoted as regarding disc brakes as: '...hip: the items to possess. I was not especially in favour of these.'
The instigation for that disc brakes had based on Issigonis, originate from, '...the direction, although it was the higher priced move to make.' One presumes the direction were functioning on a petition from Charles Griffin. Anyone taking care of an ADO16, now and then will discover there was much more room within the engine bay than both the Mini and also the later ADO17. This might have assisted servicing, but it had been not deliberate. BMC were focusing on a fresh generation of a V4, engine designs and a derivative meant to replace each of the businesses engine designs in a single swoop. And the ADO16 was certainly one of these new autos in development that V4 was meant for. Because the late 1950's BMC were focusing on a Lancia inspired 18 degree V4.
When questioned why the V4 project was abandoned, Alec Issigonis said they have been, 'thrown away because it didn't easily fit in with this design philosophy... Automobiles should be smaller but the 'living room' improved. Whenever we started work on the V4 we were using northsouth engines but since we've changed to eastwest within our little cars the V4 no more fits in with this theory because an in-line engine uses up less room fitted because manner.'
The V4 notion was dropped, once the A - Series engine proved with the capacity of enlargement to 1098cc.
The position was getting worse rather than better since the Nuffield Group retailer principals were taking a look at what Austin's merchants needed to offer, and may understand the latter had a far more complete selection of cars to market.
Instead of tackling these problems headon - something which should really happen to be done years previously - Harriman acceded towards the wishes of the Nuffield dealers, and decided to release ADO16 in the same way a Morris version initially. An Austin version would appear just after having a sufficiently long delay. This sop towards the dealers might have looked just like a great idea in the time being a means of pacifying any dissenting voices, but nonetheless, it certainly cost BMC sales and consequently meant that ADO16 had a slower start in life than would otherwise have become the situation. Around the production side of things - there was a sidebenefit for this, in that a totally new version was fed onto the marketplace in a single fundamental form, in one factory, hence helping the 'running in' process somewhat, and simplifying the handling of initial teething problems.
January 1962 the very first semiofficial acknowledgement that some thing new from BMC was on the way in which came on 8. BMC announced the Morris Minor 1,000 was to keep in creation for many time, to cancel rumors to the contrary. The rumors was present for best portion of the year as a bigger version of the Mini, that first that the Morris Minor was to be renamed and re-styled the Leading, and much more lately that it might appear with transversely mounted frontwheel drive and engine.
The Minor was a auto for BMC and direction was hesitant to see it go. It might not function as only BMC car to stay in production following a successor was introduced. Its display just served to simply take volume away from creation. Creation of the Morris 1100 began in March 1962 at Cowley, maybe probably the most militant plant within the BMC empire.
The 1100 is started
So, on 15 August 1962, merely a three years subsequent to the look of the Mini, the Morris 1100 was started. The place for that launching was Worcester College throughout the summer break, where in actuality the foreign press remained - and Alec Issigonis was in attendance. BMC maintained that 10,000 ADO16s had recently been assembled and that every Morris merchant within the entire world had an illustration. The subsequent year he was to expire.
Alec Issigonis told Basil Cardew of the Daily Express: 'We have attempted to create a good looking, practical auto - while cutting out so far as possible the threat of things going wrong. My main strategy was supposed to design a motor-car to visit as economically as possible from The to B, with complete relaxation over extremely rough roads. The entire world will determine whether we have succeeded'
The American Time magazine also quoted Mr Issigonis as saying: 'My occupation isn't to design products or status symbols, but automobiles--things that go as economically as possible from The to B. A vehicle should simply take its shape from your engineering that goes in to it.'
In case the commerce and also the people had treated Mini using a specific number of feeling, they had no such reservations concerning the 1100 and instantly took the car with their hearts, despite the truth that, such as the Mini, it had been not probably the most trusted car in its category; not by an extended chalk. Within the years following a Suez Crisis, the British car market had changed significantly, with demand for little cars growing enormously. This had the aftereffect of shifting the center point of the marketplace downwards.
CAB2 was part of BMC's growth programme to raise its theoretical production capacity from 750,000 to at least one million vehicles annually. Later within the month found the launching of the Ford Cortina, that has been Dagenham's impeccably costed auto geared toward the all important fleet market. Even its steering wheel was redesigned four times to create it in less than budget.
The Cortina came with 1200cc or 1500cc options, whereas the ADO16 was initially available only with engine, go on it or leave it. Both of these automobiles, which may fight for sales supremacy for the remainder of the decade, represented two opposed camps. The ADO16 employed high level technology to entice buyers, the Cortina employed general market trends and straightforward mechanicals to assist reliability and servicing. And since it had been costed so flawlessly, it had been lucrative enough for its manufacturers to finance its replacement. These cars were considered direct competitors, offering functionality and similar accommodation.
This is enough to enhance peak capacity to 55bhp at 5500 rpm. A brief throw 998cc version of the engine would enter the Mini Cooper in 1964. Such was the interest in the Morris 1100, that the waiting list soon built up, despite Cowley having a comparatively hit free run in late 1962.
Mr Osborn Bartram, of Corsham, Wiltshire, told the board: 'I assume you're satisfied with improvement during the previous year. But a lot people who are average investors aren't fulfilled. For one of the main businesses in the nation, the support one gets as a person is exceptionally bad.
I ask about the new Morris 1100 and am offered assurance to a vague delivery of three months. I'm not thinking about that. I would like the vehicle now, otherwise I go and receive a Ford.'
Mr Bartram might have had good cause since it wasn't until February 1963 that weekly a night-shift began at Cowley to create an additional 800 ADO16s to feel upset. This is achieved by stopping the Morris Minor night-shift. This had first been mooted in November the preceding year, but discussions with the labor unions delayed the launch of an ADO16 night-shift until February 1963.
Issigonis was quoted as saying: 'They were, enthused concerning the vehicle and all explained it'll do well in ltaly.'
'About 40% of the vehicles are getting exported, construction has started in the Innocenti works in Italy, and almost 70,000 versions are created since their launch last August. Output of the Mini is running at 5500 per week, out of a complete auto production amount by the company of 15,000. This is actually the full capacity price for your business currently, however, by the end-of 1963, when its GBP49m growth programme is complete, total automobile output may have reached 20,000 a week, or one-million a year.'
By August, BMC's chairman George Harriman was saying to the press the ADO16 would be in creation for at least 10 years. This, he said, would provide the added advantage the client's investment wasn't swept away with a fresh edition being released in a year or so of his own purchase. This is a script which could have been composed from the technical director himself and shows just how much sway Issigonis had within the BMC chairman. Per week Harriman added that in the season since the launch of the ADO16, creation of MG and Morris 1100s had passed the 110, 000 mark and was operating at 4000. Of those, 44% were being exported. Need still significantly exceeded supply, however, by November they'd be creating 6000 a week within their different variants.
Harriman repeated the Issigonis mantra for The Guardian newspaper, saying: 'People want a practical auto with the smallest general package but the greatest room inside. To not enormous, but nevertheless, it has to be the newest in line and in mechanics.'
It raised the capability of the factory from 8000 to 10,500 vehicles per week. The brand new building, which was for paint, trimming, finishing, and final construction, was clearly one of the largest single contributions to BMC's growth programs under which productive capability was intended to go up to a million vehicles annually. First production began within the glass sided, 960feet extended creating before that year plus a proportion of Morris 1100s was created there to supplement output at Cowley. Complete production on both assemblage conveyors each capable of coping with 1250 cars per week, was now at your fingertips.
Bodies were introduced to the building after going through an initial rustproofing procedure, mechanically lifted to the body storage balcony, and were not manhandled again until the vehicle was pushed off the end-of the assembly line. After construction the automobiles were put through a water and wind evaluation, comparable to driving down a motorway at 40 miles per hour in a significant thunderstorm. Water was directed on to it from all angles, driven through an artificial gale, if the vehicle was driven on rollers. This is besides the many inspections performed at stations across the conveyor.
Mr WH Cross, superintendent of the automobile construction planning section, stated at that time: 'We believe this new building will employ the most hunting quality checks which have actually been recognized in automobile production.'
September 1963 the Austin edition of the ADO16 was started a year following the first Morris 1100, on 6. Creation of the BMC 1100 was now operating at 5500 per week, and along with a weekly output of 6000 Minis. Just 10% of components were common to both vehicles, even though the two Issigonis designed automobiles were connected. An upwards shift came in October that year with all the statement of the Vanden Plas Princess variant.
BMC figured the ADO16 was a much more practical starting-point for the leather and wood treatment therefore the luxurious variant was born, and compared to the Mini was. The notion of the more lavish little family car proved popular with the auto-buying community, and several years later, the middle class Wolseley 1100 and Riley Kestrel variants appeared in rapid succession. Ultimately, no less than six versions in the motif seemed, all sharing the fundamental body shell and only differing in styling and trim - badge engineering gone crazy, maybe, but it didn't hinder sales one bit.
Interest in the ADO16 continued to develop, therefore did its global appeal. On 17 February 1964, the Morris 1100 was started in Australia. By 20 February, BMC was boasting it had assembled 1 million front-wheel drive vehicles, comprising 219, 291 ADO16 vehicles and 782, 838 Minis.
The 1275S engine used a fully redesigned block in contrast with the earlier A - Chain models, had a bigger bore and used substances.
In attempting to fill need for the ADO16, BMC was suffering from stoppages, the reasons both external and internal. By now absolute Mini and ADO16 production was more than half BMC's weekly result, but the Company was hesitant to release more production capacity by axing two versions that now appeared like vehicles from a bygone age.
Too as the upmarket wood trim these were fitted with the 55bhp 1098cc MG 1100 motor. This is followed the subsequent month by the statement that automatic transmission will be around for the Mini and ADO16. The program was intended from the Automotive Products Group and produced with BMC on the preceding 18 months - the combined investment amounting to GBP3m. It was the first union of an automatic transmission into a transverse motor - attained by placing it in the sump-and the world's lowest automatic using a torque-converter replacing the clutch.
With this time both Issigonis automobiles were also being assembled in Portugal. Weekly British result of Mini and ADO16 was now noted to be between 11,000 to 12,000.
An instance of small development
Estate variant was just as the saloon as fashionable: Streamlined and practical, it made a really attractive package. Based on Dr Alex Moulton's own records in the period of time, electric selflevelling suspension was usually meant with this version...
The estate edition of the 1100 appeared in March 1966, marking the conclusion of any significant improvement of the automobile. This edition was streamlined and equally as fashionable while the saloon, but was also a useful load rack, which makes it a really attractive package. It carved itself a fine little niche on the marketplace, but was saddled with one critical design defect: a tendency for the tail to droop noticeably under any load. Long ago in 1962, Moulton was requested to formulate selflevelling for the hydrolastic system, and created an electrically controlled system for the ADO61 - Moulton's notes reveal he believed this will be a great proposition for the ADO16 Traveller. Regrettably, it was never integrated within the little car.
Regardless of the drawbacks of BMC's advertising-led development programme for ADO16, it definitely didn't hinder the auto's revenue.
About 200 additional employees should be engaged. Unfortunately for BMC the authorities soon after determined to introduce some deflationary measures to the market and inflict a credit squeeze, which was to dramatically but desire for new vehicles, along with the strategy was cancelled.
Very shortly 30, 000 BMC workers were 000 employees redundant and from the fall of 1966 the firm declared that it was supposed to make 10, on short-time working within Joe Edwards rationalisation plan. Nevertheless a drivers strike led to accomplished automobiles being stockpiled at BMC's crops until there was no longer room for anymore automobiles, causing the vehicle giant having no choice except to turn off all car production until the dispute was resolved. BMC received significant adverse publicity in this interval. From this time selling the ADO16 became harder.
Hindsight would imply whereas BMC had not, that Ford had see the marketplace better, accurately forecasting the tendency for bigger, betterperforming cars.
Oct 1966, the Mk3 MG Midget / Mk4 Austin Healey Sprite was announced by BMC on 19. These brand new sports car versions launched finally a productionised 1275cc engine using cheaper supplies even though the block was distinct in the 'S' engine. The 12G940 cylinder head was featured by the new engine created by Daniel Richmond of Downton Engineering.
Unfortunately BMC had left it fairly late in the day and it was supposed to bring about humiliation for the company. In April 1967 British Motor Holdings declared a catastrophic GBP7.5 million half-year loss for the end-of January 1967
. BMH had apparently been hit much worse than was feared by the powerful measures of the July 1966 freeze, along with a seemingly constant round of strikes - and - squeeze measures enforced by the authorities. The measures were introduced, because the firm pointed out, only nine days before the beginning of its own fiscal year. BMC was seriously hit in the final quarter of 1966 by strikes. In the very first six months of its own fiscal year towards the end of January 1967, BMC made 23% fewer automobiles, compared with a decrease in house registrations of 15%.
Both Mini and ADO16 were automobiles greatly determined by high production quantities to pay their way and BMC were missing their production goals by a significant margin. Sir Donald Stokes Leyland Motor Corporation were reporting record company, merely a week or two after their poor financial performance was announced by BMH. This place heads in Whitehall thinking...
BMC fought through 1967, and throughout the summertime, offered the 1275cc engine within the upmarket ADO16 versions, MG, Riley, Wolseley and Vanden Plas. The brand new engine was available initially just in single carburettor form, creating 58bhp at 5250rpm and 69pound ft at 3000rpm. October, BMC announced Mk2 ADO16, complete with conventional Morris and Austin 1300s joining the present 1100 range on 17.
Braking was enhanced to contend with all the energy by fitting larger-diameter single caliper discs. Around the automated 1100 and 1300, these reduced pedal effort by 15%, but raised brake lining life by 70%. Security helps and other comfort included a fresh blend switch for direction indicators, headlamp flasher, dipper and horn. The 11 Austin and Morris versions were available in 2- or fourdoor, de luxe and superb de luxe type or as estates. Wolseley, Riley Kestrel, MG. and Vanden Plas Princess versions were all fourdoor saloons. Styling changes in the variety neater rear lights to match new global rules, and contained a lot bolder grille, vented wheels.
Unfortunately, BMC even managed to sour this encounter, because although this engine update was urgently needed throughout the scope, it was initially provided just for the upmarket versions - it was nearly a year before Austin and Morris could provide the upward gunned engine alternative.
While still maintaining high production amounts to match the popular, the whole period would end up being chaotic for the business due to the requirement to stage in the 1275cc in the all - synchomesh gearbox and different states of melody. Complete details of the modifications for the ADO16 range below.
Employed by Joe Edwards, this is a signal that senior management were not willing to take that Alec Issigonis's perspective was gospel and that design and engineering employees might have more latitude within their work.
Updating the number to 1.3-litres - how to not do-it...
March 1968: Austin America launched, for sale just in UNITED States, Canada and Switzerland. Fitted with a detoxed 60bhp version of the engine and 4 - speed auto transmission. According to one insider, BMH blatantly lost money with this derivative as a way to keep the United Kingdom's balance of payments!
Fall 1969: Morris and Austin 1300GT versions introduced, also getting the engine.
This gradual buildup of the 1300 variants was another indication of the malaise within BMC at that time, and when merchants couldn't furnish vehicles for customers, it-all smacked of conceit and mismanagement within the business - certainly the direction would have loved to get furnished demand for their merchandise, but were not able to. Unfortunately finding a MK2 1100 was also proving challenging.
Birmingham. Today can come to a halt. About 3000 employees will probably be impacted. Yesterday afternoon 1500 to the day shift were let go until tomorrow morning and another 1500 were expected to be sent home in the conclusion of the evening shift until Monday evening.'
Clifford Webb in the Days noted inside greater detail another day: 'With 3000 men let go and the Austin 1100 and 1300 lines delivered to a standstill with a lack of parts, union officers and men at BMC's Longbridge plant responded strongly yesterday from what one union spokesman referred to as, 'yet another case of poor creation planning by BMC.' A token force of the guys laid-off staged a walk-in yesterday morning. Many of them took banners proclaiming, 'Harriman Out... The Lads In'. It was the next demonstration this week by guys laid off. The guys were particularly critical of direction for enabling creation to be organized with a lack of parts.
'Where is all this so-called new management strategy we've been hearing a lot about recently,' they demanded, a cry echoed by George Evans, district coordinator of the National Union of Automobile Builders. 'He explained bluntly: 'It's the old, old story at BMC. Another example of poor creation organizing'.'
'On the opposite it's been among the most effective new version changeover periods we've had for some time and definitely better-than some of our opponents, have managed. Changing over to new versions is continually a finely balanced and exceptionally complicated matter. The current problem is inflated out-of all proportion. Once the final of the guys let go came back to work on Monday they may have dropped in most less-than three shifts.'
Webb continued: 'My own inquiries to the factors behind the most recent stoppage show two chief factors behind delay, radiator grilles and motor blocks. Numerous new automobiles are getting stockpiled at Longbridge without grilles. They were redesigned as a member of the face-lift for those Minis and 1100s and are mainly furnished by one of BMC's own businesses, Morris Radiators. The engine block issue was much more severe. In recent months about 800 blocks are rejected because they didn't accomplish required standards of quality. I realize the great majority were declined due to blow holes in the castings. The castings are provided partly from within the team and partly from exterior. The extraordinary thing is nevertheless that rejects from both sources increased alarmingly at once. But yesterday there is information of a much more significant danger to creation triggered now with a strike at one of BMC's important suppliers, Birmingham Aluminium Casting at Smethwick.'
Hiss enquiries were right. BMC had determined very late in the afternoon to face-lift both Mini and ADO16. Unfortunately this is inadequate time because of its suppliers to tool up and as a way to satisfy demand for the revised versions create sufficient amounts of parts. Also in limited supply were tail lamps. While all this is happening, merger discussions were now getting significant between BMH and the Leyland Motor Corporation, supervised by an interested party, Harold Wilson's authorities.
What's more, BMC failed to provide the sort of upgraded version of the automobile the marketplace so desperately desired. A hatchback version, dubbed YDO15, had been operating like an image by mid1966, however the firm determined, for some reason, that it wasn't an automobile for the UK industry therefore - criminally - overlooked this chance for growth.
Obviously we don't know if BMC ever tried installing the bigger B-Series powertrain for the ADO16, it certainly could have fitted?
It seems that BMC's preferable remedy to fill the gap between the ADO16 and ADO17 1800, and undertake Ford's Cortina, wbecause the vehicle known to the press because the BMC 1500 and internally because the ADO14, later created because the Austin Maxi. Instead of up gunning the ADO16, the factories reaction was supposed to spend millions on an totally new-car. On 20 November 1967, the ax finally came down on the Austin A40, within Joe Edwards' rationalisation, freeing-up more output capacity at Longbridge.
In January 1968 the creation of BLMC was declared, even though the offer was far from settled. From the subsequent month, the backlog of incomplete BMC vehicles had reached the amazing amount of 51,000, chiefly Minis and ADO16s. He discovered incomplete vehicles were being kept on every spare bit of ground, when February Leyland Finance director John Barber travelled to Longbridge on the 14.
The elevation in sales of the scope in general was clear for all to see, when manufacturing and sales of the 1275cc versions of the automobile were eventually up to speed. In 1967 / 68 production increased to a record 1968 and 249, 500 / 1969 production of 247, 138 was just slightly down on that. In 1968 the ADO16 reclaimed the top spot as UK's best selling auto. 1969 (the first complete year of Leyland management at Longbridge) was a year of typically poor sales in britain, yet ADO16 managed to keep its mastery of the sales charts, grabbing 13.8% of the marketplace.
After five years in light running development and creation, work finally got underway on an alternative for the ADO16. Or rather, the more attractive notion of refining the merchandise and bringing its fashion current: initially this development function, headed by Charles Griffin, centred on upgrading the Hydrolastic suspension setup to provide a smoother ride, and so improved subframes and mountings were created, which likewise included lessons learned in the illfated ADO61 job. The brand new-car was dubbed the ADO22 and also once it was described the project went along fast - road-going mules were assembled and also the outcome of the revisions to the suspension method were a huge improvement on the car.
From the start of 1968, BMH had the mechanical revisions fully tooledup for creation, but the type of your body was still to be signed off. Meanwhile, British Leyland were produced, and Joe Edwards was the first casualty - in April 1968. The results definitely looked bright, but the whole ADO22 job was shelved in the grounds of prices - and the reality the fundamental design was now six years of age, and in the brain of Webster, this is much too old a design to base a fresh vehicle on.
There is also a sense within AustinMorris, the new regime wished to disassociate itself with the previous - and consequently, Webster moved whole-scale towards a brand new, cheaper to create vehicle, the Austin Allegro
They were the guys who'd now preside in the ADO16's potential.
The ADO16 became accessible with the all-synchromesh gearbox, something the Ford Cortina had had from launching on 30 September 1968. In Oct 1968, in the Turin motor show, Pininfarina demonstrated a fashionable auto based on ADO16 mechanicals, similar to the prior year's 1800 Aerodynamica.
In June 1969, antipodean auto buyers got the sort of auto refused to the YDO9 Morris Nomad, European auto buyers and the YDO15 Morris 1500. The Morris Nomad was an ADO16 design fivedoor hatchback designed at Longbridge in combination with Australian engineers. The Morris 1500 was just the version of the Nomad. Both 1500 versions had a bonnet bulge to adapt the E - Series motor. Presumably it wasn't offered in Europe to prevent damaging sales of the just started Austin Maxi.
In July 1969, BLMC declared it was axing the Riley marque, which meant the end-of the route for the Riley Kestrel; although the Riley of was in fact created in October. Austin Morris Managing Director George Turnbull was quoted as saying: 'We aren't considering taking actions with some other marques within the expected potential... Your decision to drop the Riley marque hasn't been dismissed and relies on sound financial and company concerns. Not many Riley vehicles are exported and also the substitution of export marques can help our entire work, and aid us to reach maximum effectiveness for an auto-company.'
October 1969 found the statement of the Morris and Austin 1300GT. This is essentially an Austin/Morris saloon fitted with a 70bhp MG 1300 engine and built to attract younger, sportier buyers. Additionally, it retailed cheaper than an MG 1300 that also assisted. The MG 1300 / 1300GT engine used the large valve 12G940 cylinder head also located in the Mini Cooper S for an additional 5bhp over the Spridget sports-car and the Wolseley 1300.
Among the elements that made the ADO16 so appealing was its uniqueness in the marketplace, it seemed attractive and was both pleasing and simple to drive, an advantage of front wheel generate, with close Minilike handling along with a Tardis like inside, which made it a much more feasible family car compared to the Mini. In a nutshell, it was user-friendly.
The very first key participant to reply to the BMC was Fiat with the 128. Such as the Mini and ADO16, the 128 had a transversemounted engine, but, the critical breakthrough with the 128 was the utilization of unequal length driveshafts which enabled the engine and gearbox to be found alongside, a layout that has since become ubiquitous for little autos. The 128 was accessible with 1116cc and 1290cc engines, exactly the same alternative offered to ADO16 buyers; it was likewise the very first vehicle to feature the allnew Fiat SOHC engine, a style that has been greatly advanced for the time, featuring an aluminium alloy cylinder head having a direct overhead camshaft driven by means of a rubber toothed belt. Conventional manufacturing was supposed to survive ten years.
In January 1970, George Turnbull announced creation of the ADO16 was supposed to be stepped-up with an additional 900 cars weekly appearing from the firm's crops. Then in September 1970 the Australian only Morris Nomad 1.5litre and 1500 became accessible with a five-speed gearbox.
At that period of the Marina's launching the ADO16 was still keeping a remarkable 12% of the UK marketplace. BLMC confessed they anticipated the Marina to take revenue away from ADO16.
In July 1971 BLMC declared that ADO16 creation had surpassed two-million automobiles. Instead handily the company also maintained the same week that it had made its five millionth front-wheel drive car. What was telling was the very fact that a minimum of 4.7 million of those were the Mini and ADO16, where the gross margins were small. Harry Webster, George Turnbull and Sir Alec Issigonis posed for the cameras.
Having a revised matt-black grille. A revised mock wood dash featuring two round dials was also fitted. Such as the modern MK3 Minis, the bean counters was at work.
On 26 November 1971, the Austin Apache was started in South Africa. This is a booted ADO16 entire with Michelotti makeover. Obviously, that doesn't take into consideration the undeniable fact the UK ADO16 creation was currently just concentrated at Longbridge, which cannot make as many models as if it was in partnership with Cowley.
This effectively amounted to a deliberate reduction in creation. The Morris Marina had very certainly impacted on sales, as faithful Morris buyers could not obtain a new ADO16 saloon; but did have the chance to get a shiny new Marina with both 1800 and 1300 engine choices. In 1971 / 73 Marina creation was 155, the combined ADO16 and 817 / Marina total is 300, 164 revealing that in relation to volume, BLMC was overall gaining ground. And the Marina was likely more lucrative. This appeared to have some impact.
In the 1969/70 financial year, AustinMorris lost GBP16m; in 1971/72 it created a gain of GBP9m.
However, large stockpiles meant the vehicles were sold until mid 1972. BLMC was compelled to deny persistent reports that they should change the long - functioning 1100 / 1300 Austin range with a fresh car to be started within the spring of 1973, later that year. Mr Filmer Paradise, manager of revenue for the AustinMorris group, said: 'I can let you know this is entirely false. They'll continue in creation for several of years from next spring whatever additional new versions we might be introducing around that point.'
AustinMorris had been proven to take the period in its Longbridge, Birmingham, plant the ADO67, which might be offered via the Austin supplier network. The Morris Marina, introduced 16 months previously, was at this time the group's best-seller, changing the 1100/1300 whose sales had fallen. Austin retailers unable to share within the Marina's achievement were explained as being in pressing need of a recent version.
In October 1972, merely to demonstrate there was life within the old dog yet, the Austin Victoria was started in Spain. Centered around the Austin Apache, the styling was given more focus along with the vehicle was fitted with twin headlamps. Using the Allegro along the way, UK creation of the ADO16 began to run-down in 1973. In April 1973 the Wolseley 1300, MG 1300 CKD kits and Morris 1300 Traveller stopped production. Paradoxically while the ADO16 was fading away in great BRITAIN, at exactly the same time Authi who assembled the car in Spain, was investigating just one more development of the car. In the Barcelona Motor Show of April 1973 Authi exhibited an MG badged Victoria saloon complete with all modern mod cons and Downton tuned 83bhp 1275cc engine. However difficulties within BLMC and Authi stopped the automobile from reaching creation.
17 May 1973 was your day BLMC started the Allegro. Clifford Webb wrote in the Days version released that day: 'One of the 2 1100/1300 assembly paths at Longbridge is transformed into Allegro creation. The 2nd line will probably be transformed over while this reaches 2500 per week. By early next year a week the business expect to be generating in excess of 4000 Allegros. It's not possible to over-emphasize the significance of Allegro for the fortunes of British Leyland. The C-class sector now accounts for something similar to one-million sales annually in UK. 'Two years ago AustinMorris was getting as much as 30% of the course. By March, 1972, they were down to 23% and in the very first three months of the year had dropped to just 18%. This decrease was due mainly to falling interest in the 1100 / 1300 although inability to create cars in growth conditions was a significant giving factor. Since the early 1960s the older version is the backbone of AustinMorris. Worldwide sales have surpassed 2.3m that 1.3m were offered within great Britain.
'It is Great Britain industry leader for seven of the 10 years because it was started and for eight consecutive years held over 10 percent penetration. But during the previous two years demand is becoming more concentrated in the very best end-of the C-class sector with motorists insisting on engines and above. Simultaneously they need higher standards of trimming, increased passenger and baggage space, decreased sound levels and enhanced driving position. Despite umpteen facelifts the 10-year-old 1100/1300 was not able to meet these shifting fashions.'
Abroad yet another form seemed, while focus now focused in the Allegro.
This is accompanied by George Turnbull's resignation, from the BLMC board and as managing director of AustinMorris. It was certainly no secret within the business he and fellow board member John Barber were competitors, along with the latter now seemed as heir apparent to Lord Stokes.
October 1973 brought the Yom Kippur war plus a steep increase in petroleum prices, that was to change the auto industry.
In January 1974 the ADO88 supermini project was instigated by Charles Griffin, now director of advanced engineering at Austin Morris,, after to evolve to the Metro.
However there isn't any record that BLMC ever investigated as the base for those corporations using the system new supermini, as many pundits have implied they should have. Fitted with a 998cc 55bhp A-Series motor plus a grille like that fitted to the Austin 1300. The state of tune of the engine indicate it was a Mini Cooper kind device, out of production in britain since the end-of 1969.
In April 1974 BLMC declared it had been pruning the Austin Allegro range after disappointing sales. These were the variants of the 1500 super de luxe, the 1300 de luxe and the 1750 sport. The company anticipated the greatest interest in the larger engined Allegros, but this wasn't the situation. In the very first 90 days of 1974 it arrived seventh in the listing of bestselling vehicles in UK, a small operation in contrast to its predecessor, the ADO16. Creation in the time was recorded at operating at only over half the capacity of 4500 to 5000 units. Although BLMC put on a brave face, obviously the Allegro hadn't clicked with car buyers. It was maintained that he was miserable following the departure of George Turnbull, however, with the Allegro stuttering within the sales charts, perhaps there was another motive?
The Ford Cortina, now in guise, may have left the ADO16 behind in both revenue and size, but nevertheless, it might be argued the achievement of the ADO16 had created an unique course, that your Fiat 128 joined in 1969. In-may 1974, it was joined by another important player, twice the size of BLMC as well as in fiscal problem.
From the early 1970s, the company had fallen into fiscal woe. A fresh strategy utilizing front-wheel drive was desired.
1300cc engines and too as 1100, the Golf also featured 1600cc and 1500 engines mounted transversely with the end on gearbox.
This version had continued to sell well regardless of the conclusion of mainstream 1100/1300 creation. The closing years of the ADO16 in the United Kingdom were unhappy ones, British Leyland and its own component suppliers were now hopelessly strike ridden and the financial abyss couldn't now be long-delayed. In 1973 a massive expansion plan had been announced by the corporation, but nevertheless, it couldn't get its current plants to function to ability and generally.
The exceptions being 1967 while the Ford Cortina Mk2 narrowly defeat this, and when creation of the vehicle was cut by the choice to focus assemblage at Longbridge then from 1972 onwards.
But where BMC went wrong with ADO16 was the automobile wasn't developed as a way to satisfy the shifting preferences of its own clients. Both Mini and the 1100 were being priced so competitively there is little margin for gain in these types of automobiles, and so ADO16 stayed mostly unaltered throughout its long and productive life. John Barber certainly believed the ADO16 was underpriced, and when the Morris Marina was completely on-stream in 1973 Austin Morris just returned to revenue. Because the '60s drew on along with the nation began to be prosperous, the small vehicle was left out through too little development.
So, BMC had committed the sin of not creating its most popular auto in no time, but more by luck than judgment, sales held up nicely throughout its production life. The car's fundamental flaws were numerous, but because its packaging was so powerful and its particular styling so likeable, it engendered an astounding number of goodwill to the part of its own clients. From a contemporary view, but, the reality that ADO16 sales managed to keep up also they did cannot be attributed merely to the vehicle's popularity: in its existence, it ceased being a central market vehicle - the Cortina represented that sector completely - and became a well-recognized little car. As an effect, it was always likely to locate a ready market.
A more major change arrived in 1971, once the start of the Marina signalled the end for the Morris and MGbadged ADO16s (apart from some export versions and the Traveler).
The inquiry of why things went wrong for BLMC after ADO16 was eventually dropped in 1974 could be answered by reference to predecessor BMC's advertising and (lack of) improvement methods. Any illusions that ADO16 still represented the wishes of the middlemarket auto buyer were ultimately buried by the coming of the completely larger Mk3 Cortina in 1971, and were shattered by the look of the larger Mk2 Cortina in 1966.
Therefore from the early 70s, ADO16 had been well and actually left behind by what was after its opponent. Because in its dimensions and proportions it perfectly epitomised the modest family car, a strain that will get so popular only a couple of years therefore, however, this didn't sound its death knell. The unfortunate thing here is that noone within the business appeared to comprehend this shift within the marketplace: the automobile was perfectly sized to form the base for a supermini within the modern idiom, being of comparable measurements for the Ford Fiesta and Volkswagen Polo of 1976. Had BLMC ordered a weightreduction programme and created a hatchback body for ADO16, the firm might have had the perfect vehicle with which to contend throughout the catastrophe-riddled '70s.
Of all missed chances catalogued in this site, this failure should stand as a significant landmark within the down fall of BMC then British Leyland. With the advantage of hindsight, a legitimate plan of action might have been for ADO16 to become an early supermini, and for a rebodied Maxi to inhabit the time slot further upmarket the Allegro was eventually made to fill. In short, the amount spent in the ADO74, ADO67 and ADO88 programmes might have been more wisely spent elsewhere.
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